Queen Elizabeth ll Great Court
Norman Foster & Partners

April 05, 2002 /

London, England

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

With the opening of the Great Court, London has gained a public space of international significance, open to all.

The grand courtyard at the heart of the British Museum was one of London's long-lost spaces. Almost immediately after its completion in the nineteenth century, the Round Reading Room of the British Library was built at its centre and it was gradually filled in with buildings to house the ever increasing collection of books. Without public access to this courtyard the Museum lacked a focus - it was like a city without a park. The project is about its rediscovery.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

The relocation of the British Library to its new building in St Pancras, in March 1998, presented an opportunity to recreate the Museum's courtyard in the form of the Great Court. This two-acre space is now the hub of the building, providing access to all parts of the Museum. The British Museum has forty per cent more public space than it did two years ago, which has solved a host of problems for one of the world's busiest museums.

Drawing courtesy Foster & Partners

The Great Court creates a range of new facilities, which have equipped the Museum for the twenty-first century. These include galleries and exhibition spaces; state-of-the-art auditoria, education and study rooms; shops and restaurants. They are essential to the museum's ability to welcome its ever-increasing stream of visitors, now numbering more than five and a half million each year.

The first step in the recreation of the Great Court was the demolition of the undistinguished post-war buildings that served as book stacks around the drum of the Reading Room. The southern portico, which was demolished to enlarge the Museum's entrance hall in the 1870s, has been reinstated to a new design. The other facades have been restored, requiring more than 6,000 square meters of new stonework.

The Great Court is a major new civic and social space for locals and visitors alike and a popular rendezvous for those who live or work in the neighborhood. With two cafés on the main level and a restaurant above, it is possible to eat in the Great Court from early in the morning until late at night. Newspapers and magazines are on sale at the new bookshop.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

To allow the Great Court to be used no matter what the weather, it is covered with an undulating glazed roof. It has no visible supports to detract from the restoration of the classical facades around it. Instead it spans the gap between the facades and the drum of the Reading Room as a self-supporting structure.

The undulating, minimal steel lattice work supports 3,312 unique triangular glass panels. Each one is different in size and shape because of the roof's complex geometric form, which results from the fact that the Reading Room is not exactly in the center of the Great Court, but is 5 meters closer to the northern portico. A specially written computer program was required to work out the exact dimensions and angles of each panel, each of which has been sponsored by an individual or company.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

For the first time in its history the magnificent Round Reading Room, with its dome greater in size than that of St. Paul's, is open to all. It houses a new public library concentrating on World Cultures and taking advantage of the latest technology. The restoration of the Reading Room's original scheme used 25 km of 23.25 carat gold leaf. This is the equivalent of over 12,000 books of gold leaf. 1 mile of Flexiweave, a material similar to surgical bandage, has been used to repair the interior of the dome - enough to wrap 160 Egyptian mummies.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

The new Clore Education Centre and the Ford Centre for Young Visitors is housed below the Great Court. There are lecture theaters and seminar rooms to meet the needs of the Museum's expanding education program. There is also a major new exhibition space, the Sainsbury African Gallery, part of a bold plan to return the whole department of Ethnography to the Museum. The creation of these new facilities has gone hand-in-hand with an operation to restore the Museum's historical spaces and to reveal the full splendor of its original architecture. This has included the accurate reinstatement of the original decorative schemes of the Reading Room and the main entrance hall.

The Great Court creates a new shortcut through Bloomsbury as part of a continuous pedestrian route from the new British Library, the great railway terminal and the University of London, in the north, through to Covent Garden, Trafalgar Square, Soho and the River. To complement the Great Court, the Museum's forecourt has been freed from cars and restored to form a new public space.

Photo: Nigel Young/Foster & Partners.

Facts about Queen Elizabeth ll Great Court

Total Area:

19,000 square meters

Some amazing facts:

The Courtyard:

The Reading Room:

  • The inner courtyard covers 2 acres
  • 96 meters long (length of facade of Buckingham Palace) x 72 meters wide equivalent to the size of Wembley football pitch.
  • 6,000 square meters of courtyard facades have been restored.
  • 16,000 tons of concrete have been used to build the foundations and new principal floor of the courtyard The rebuilding of the south portico of the courtyard used 2,000 tons of stone. The largest piece of stone weighs eight tons.
  • The Roof covers an area of 6,000 square meters and weighs 800 tons (478 tons steel / 315 tons of glass)
  • The new glass roof is supported by 12 kilometers of steel. It spans a distance of 96 meters by 72 meters.
  • 6,000 individual steel members are attached to each other by 1,800 connecting nodes. It has been built to an astonishing accuracy of plus or minus 3mm.
  • The roof contains enough glass to glaze 500 domestic greenhouses. It is composed of 3,312 individual panels of glass, each one a unique triangle.
  • The 3,312 panels of glass are screen printed with small dots on 50% of their surface - a technique called 'fritting'. The fritting filters ultraviolet rays and reduces solar gain.


  • Height from floor to apex of dome: 33 meters (106 feet). Dome diameter 43 meters (140 feet). In comparison, the diameter of St. Paul's Cathedral is 34 meters (112 feet)
  • Floor area: 1,350 square meters
  • Originally designed purely as an interior and not given an exterior finish
  • Over 2 tons of paint was used to redecorate the Reading Room's dome


Last updated: December 19, 2013

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